Experience the romance and danger of the ancient struggle between Vampires and Werewolves. Experience the romance and danger of the ancient struggle between Vampires and Werewolves. Seiten in der Kategorie „Lore: Vampire“. Vampir. “ Dratik war ein Vampir. Er wurde von den fünf Azura-Anbetern Ghola gro-Muzgol, Aranalda, Nille Dratik.
Modern writers of vampire fiction, including Stephenie Meyer, Anne Rice, Stephen King and countless others, have a rich vein of vampire lore to draw from.
But where did the modern idea of vampires come from? The answer lies in the gap between science and superstition. Some sources incorrectly trace vampires back to Romanian prince Vlad Tepes , who fought for independence against the Ottoman Empire.
Though by most accounts his methods were brutal and sadistic for example, slowly impaling his enemies on stakes, drawing and quartering them, burning them to death, etc.
Similar techniques were used by the Catholic Church and other powerful entities and rulers during the Middle Ages to torture and kill enemies.
While Tepes partly inspired fictional modern vampires, the roots of "real" vampires have very different origins. As a cultural entity, vampires are a worldwide phenomenon.
According to anthropologist Paul Barber, author of "Vampires, Burial, and Death," stories from nearly every culture have some localized version of the vampire, and "bear a surprising resemblance to the European vampire.
The belief in real vampires stems from superstition and mistaken assumptions about post-mortem decay. The first recorded accounts of vampires circulated in Europe in the Middle Ages.
The stories follow a consistent pattern: Thus vampires were merely sufferers of porphyria seeking to replace haem and alleviate their symptoms.
The theory has been rebuffed medically as suggestions that porphyria sufferers crave the haem in human blood, or that the consumption of blood might ease the symptoms of porphyria, are based on a misunderstanding of the disease.
Furthermore, Dolphin was noted to have confused fictional bloodsucking vampires with those of folklore, many of whom were not noted to drink blood.
In any case, Dolphin did not go on to publish his work more widely. Rabies has been linked with vampire folklore. The susceptibility to garlic and light could be due to hypersensitivity, which is a symptom of rabies.
The disease can also affect portions of the brain that could lead to disturbance of normal sleep patterns thus becoming nocturnal and hypersexuality.
Legend once said a man was not rabid if he could look at his own reflection an allusion to the legend that vampires have no reflection.
Wolves and bats , which are often associated with vampires, can be carriers of rabies. The disease can also lead to a drive to bite others and to a bloody frothing at the mouth.
In his treatise On the Nightmare , Welsh psychoanalyst Ernest Jones asserted that vampires are symbolic of several unconscious drives and defence mechanisms.
Emotions such as love, guilt, and hate fuel the idea of the return of the dead to the grave. Desiring a reunion with loved ones, mourners may project the idea that the recently dead must in return yearn the same.
From this arises the belief that folkloric vampires and revenants visit relatives, particularly their spouses, first. In cases where there was unconscious guilt associated with the relationship, the wish for reunion may be subverted by anxiety.
This may lead to repression , which Sigmund Freud had linked with the development of morbid dread. The sexual aspect may or may not be present.
People identify with immortal vampires because, by so doing, they overcome, or at least temporarily escape from, their fear of dying.
The innate sexuality of bloodsucking can be seen in its intrinsic connection with cannibalism and folkloric one with incubus -like behaviour.
Many legends report various beings draining other fluids from victims, an unconscious association with semen being obvious. Finally Jones notes that when more normal aspects of sexuality are repressed, regressed forms may be expressed, in particular sadism ; he felt that oral sadism is integral in vampiric behaviour.
The reinvention of the vampire myth in the modern era is not without political overtones. In his entry for "Vampires" in the Dictionnaire philosophique , Voltaire notices how the midth century coincided with the decline of the folkloric belief in the existence of vampires but that now "there were stock-jobbers, brokers, and men of business, who sucked the blood of the people in broad daylight; but they were not dead, though corrupted.
These true suckers lived not in cemeteries, but in very agreeable palaces". Marx defined capital as "dead labour which, vampire-like, lives only by sucking living labour, and lives the more, the more labour it sucks".
A number of murderers have performed seemingly vampiric rituals upon their victims. Serial killers Peter Kürten and Richard Trenton Chase were both called "vampires" in the tabloids after they were discovered drinking the blood of the people they murdered.
Similarly, in , an unsolved murder case in Stockholm , Sweden was nicknamed the " Vampire murder ", because of the circumstances of the victim's death.
Vampire lifestyle is a term for a contemporary subculture of people, largely within the Goth subculture , who consume the blood of others as a pastime; drawing from the rich recent history of popular culture related to cult symbolism, horror films , the fiction of Anne Rice , and the styles of Victorian England.
Although many cultures have stories about them, vampire bats have only recently become an integral part of the traditional vampire lore.
Vampire bats were integrated into vampire folklore after they were discovered on the South American mainland in the 16th century. The three species of vampire bats are all endemic to Latin America, and there is no evidence to suggest that they had any Old World relatives within human memory.
It is therefore impossible that the folkloric vampire represents a distorted presentation or memory of the vampire bat.
The bats were named after the folkloric vampire rather than vice versa; the Oxford English Dictionary records their folkloric use in English from and the zoological not until The vampire bat's bite is usually not harmful to a person, but the bat has been known to actively feed on humans and large prey such as cattle and often leaves the trademark, two-prong bite mark on its victim's skin.
The literary Dracula transforms into a bat several times in the novel, and vampire bats themselves are mentioned twice in it.
The vampire is now a fixture in popular fiction. Such fiction began with 18th-century poetry and continued with 19th-century short stories, the first and most influential of which was John Polidori 's The Vampyre , featuring the vampire Lord Ruthven.
The vampire theme continued in penny dreadful serial publications such as Varney the Vampire and culminated in the pre-eminent vampire novel in history: Dracula by Bram Stoker, published in Over time, some attributes now regarded as integral became incorporated into the vampire's profile: Much is made of the price of eternal life, namely the incessant need for blood of former equals.
Byron was also credited with the first prose fiction piece concerned with vampires: This was in reality authored by Byron's personal physician, John Polidori , who adapted an enigmatic fragmentary tale of his illustrious patient, "Fragment of a Novel" , also known as "The Burial: The Vampyre was highly successful and the most influential vampire work of the early 19th century.
Varney the Vampire was a landmark popular mid- Victorian era gothic horror story by James Malcolm Rymer and Thomas Peckett Prest , which first appeared from to in a series of pamphlets generally referred to as penny dreadfuls because of their inexpensive price and typically gruesome contents.
It has a distinctly suspenseful style, using vivid imagery to describe the horrifying exploits of Varney.
Like Varney before her, the vampire Carmilla is portrayed in a somewhat sympathetic light as the compulsion of her condition is highlighted.
No effort to depict vampires in popular fiction was as influential or as definitive as Bram Stoker 's Dracula The vampiric traits described in Stoker's work merged with and dominated folkloric tradition, eventually evolving into the modern fictional vampire.
Drawing on past works such as The Vampyre and Carmilla , Stoker began to research his new book in the late 19th century, reading works such as The Land Beyond the Forest by Emily Gerard and other books about Transylvania and vampires.
The first chapter of the book was omitted when it was published in , but it was released in as Dracula's Guest.
The latter part of the 20th century saw the rise of multi-volume vampire epics. It also set the trend for seeing vampires as poetic tragic heroes rather than as the more traditional embodiment of evil.
This formula was followed in novelist Anne Rice's highly popular and influential Vampire Chronicles — The 21st century brought more examples of vampire fiction, such as J.
Ward 's Black Dagger Brotherhood series, and other highly popular vampire books which appeal to teenagers and young adults. Such vampiric paranormal romance novels and allied vampiric chick-lit and vampiric occult detective stories are a remarkably popular and ever-expanding contemporary publishing phenomenon.
Hamilton 's erotic Anita Blake: Vampire Hunter series, and Kim Harrison 's The Hollows series, portray the vampire in a variety of new perspectives, some of them unrelated to the original legends.
Vampires in the Twilight series — by Stephenie Meyer ignore the effects of garlic and crosses and are not harmed by sunlight, although it does reveal their supernatural status.
Considered one of the preeminent figures of the classic horror film, the vampire has proven to be a rich subject for the film and gaming industries.
Dracula is a major character in more films than any other but Sherlock Holmes , and many early films were either based on the novel Dracula or closely derived from it.
These included the German silent film Nosferatu , directed by F. Murnau and featuring the first film portrayal of Dracula—although names and characters were intended to mimic Dracula ' s, Murnau could not obtain permission to do so from Stoker's widow, and had to alter many aspects of the film.
The decade saw several more vampire films, most notably Dracula's Daughter in The legend of the vampire continued through the film industry when Dracula was reincarnated in the pertinent Hammer Horror series of films, starring Christopher Lee as the Count.
The successful Dracula starring Lee was followed by seven sequels. Lee returned as Dracula in all but two of these and became well known in the role.
Several films featured the characterisation of a female, often lesbian, vampire such as Hammer Horror's The Vampire Lovers , based on Carmilla , though the plotlines still revolved around a central evil vampire character.
The Gothic soap opera Dark Shadows , on American television from to and produced by Dan Curtis , featured the vampire character Barnabas Collins , portrayed by Canadian actor Jonathan Frid , which proved partly responsible for making the series one of the most popular of its type, amassing a total of 1, episodes in its nearly five-year run.
The pilot for the later Dan Curtis television series Kolchak: Later films showed more diversity in plotline, with some focusing on the vampire-hunter, such as Blade in the Marvel Comics ' Blade films and the film Buffy the Vampire Slayer.
Still others showed the vampire as protagonist, such as 's The Hunger , 's Interview with the Vampire and its indirect sequel of sorts Queen of the Damned , and the series Moonlight.
The film Bram Stoker's Dracula became the then-highest grossing vampire film ever. This increase of interest in vampiric plotlines led to the vampire being depicted in films such as Underworld and Van Helsing , and the Russian Night Watch and a TV miniseries remake of Salem's Lot , both from The series Blood Ties premiered on Lifetime Television in , featuring a character portrayed as Henry Fitzroy, illegitimate son of Henry VIII of England turned vampire, in modern-day Toronto , with a female former Toronto detective in the starring role.
It featured an unconventional trio of a vampire, a werewolf and a ghost who are sharing a flat in Bristol. The continuing popularity of the vampire theme has been ascribed to a combination of two factors: The role-playing game Vampire: The Masquerade has been influential upon modern vampire fiction and elements of its terminology, such as embrace and sire , appear in contemporary fiction.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Vampire disambiguation. List of vampires in folklore and mythology.
List of vampire traits in folklore and fiction. Garlic, Bibles, crucifixes, rosaries, holy water, and mirrors have all been seen in various folkloric traditions as means of warding against or identifying vampires.
Vampire folklore by region. From Nosferatu to Interview with the Vampire pp. Archived from the original on 26 January Retrieved 26 January Oxford English Dictionary 2nd ed.
Vampires as Creatures of the Imagination: Hirzel —" in German. Archived from the original on 26 September Archived from the original on 14 June Retrieved 13 June Mify Narodov Mira in Russian.
Archived from the original on 25 February Retrieved 28 February Archived from the original on 12 January The Reader's Digest Book of strange stories, amazing facts: Testamento del paisa in Spanish 7th ed.
An Encyclopaedia of Occultism. Witchcraft and Magic in the Nordic Middle Ages. University of Pennsylvania Press. Die Bestattung in Litauen in der vorgeschichtlichen Zeit in German.
Journal of the Gypsy Lore Society. Mitteilungen der Schlesischen Gesellschaft für Volkskunde in German. Treatise on the Apparitions of Spirits and on Vampires or Revenants: The Element Encyclopedia of Vampires.
Aberglaube und Stafrecht in German. Handwörterbuch des deutschen Aberglaubens in German. Wiener Völkerkundliche Mitteilungen in German.
News , archived ; also by Reuters, published under the headline "Researchers find remains that support medieval 'vampire'" in The Australian , 13 March , archived with photo scroll down.
In Search of Dracula. Vikram and The Vampire: Vampires, Einstein and Jewish Folklore". Retrieved 5 December Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association.
Critical and Historical Studies on the Preternatural. The New Annotated Dracula. Retrieved 20 November The encyclopedia of the undead. One of the earliest accounts of vampires is found in an ancient Sumerian and Babylonian myth dating to 4, B.
The ekimmu is a type of uruku or utukku a spirit or demon who was not buried properly and has returned as a vengeful spirit to suck the life out of the living.
In vampire folklore, a vampire initially emerges as a soft blurry shape with no bones. If he could survive for 40 days, he would then develop bones and a body and become much more dangerous and difficult to kill.
In , a sixteenth-century female skull with a rock wedged in its mouth was found near the remains of plague victims.
It was not unusual during that century to shove a rock or brick in the mouth of a suspected vampire to prevent it from feeding on the bodies of other plague victims or attacking the living.
Female vampires were also often blamed for spreading the bubonic plague throughout Europe. Hollywood and literary depictions of vampires are vastly different than of historical myths.
Today vampires are widely believed to be very old, tall, attractive, intelligent and aristocratic, sleep in coffins on native ground, have an insatiable thirst for blood, and who must be staked through the heart to be killed.
In contrast, folkloric vampires before Bram Stoker are usually peasants of low intelligence, recently dead, do not need their native soil, and are often cremated with or without being staked.
By the end of the twentieth century, over motion pictures were made about vampires, and over of them featured Dracula.
Over 1, vampire novels were published, most within the past 25 years. There is no historical lore that corroborate these concepts and seem to mostly be very recent developments in vampire mythology.
The idea of a vampire is harmed by sunlight is a fairly recent and, apparently, a literary invention. Historic lore makes no mention of it.
Though, there have been reports that perhaps the U. Folklore vampires can become vampires not only through a bite, but also if they were once a werewolf, practiced sorcery, were an illegitimate child of parents who were illegitimate, died before baptism, anyone who has eaten the flesh of a sheep killed by a wolf, was the child of a pregnant woman who was looked upon by a vampire, was a nun who stepped over an unburied body, had teeth when they were born, or had a cat jump on their corpse before being buried England and Japan , a baby born with teeth; a stillborn; a bat flying over a corpse Romania ; being excommunicated by the Orthodox Church Greece ; being the seventh son of the seventh son; a dead body that has been reflected in a mirror; red heads Greece ; people who die by suicide or sudden, violent deaths; people who were improperly buried; renouncing the Eastern Orthodox religion.Der Kameralprovisor Frombald wurde mit der Klärung der Vampirfälle beauftragt. Der vom Vampirmythos abgeleitete Vampirismus geht auf den Aberglauben zurück, dass das Trinken von Blut, als Online casino bonuses no deposit required des Lebens, lebenspendend sei. Die Serben kennen die Begriffe vampir, lampir, lapir, upir und upirina. Doch abgesehen von all dem, wer glaubt schon an Vampire? Take Survey No, Thanks. Weitere Bedeutungen sind unter Vampir Begriffsklärung aufgeführt. Wenn Vampire in Dörfern und Städten entdeckt andere für sich traden lassen, werden sie meistens vom Volk gejagt und getötet; etwas ähnliches kann man in der Quest Die letzte Ruhe miterleben. Im Albanischen werden die Vampirwesen als vampir oder dhampir bezeichnet. In vielen altertümlichen Darstellungen ist von zwei, seltener von vier Azerbaijan türkei die Rede. Stirbt ein Mensch jedoch mit Vampirblut nordicbet com Organismus, wird er auch zum Vampir. Als die Nomaden sie verbrennen schalke 04 2019, wie es bei ihnen Brauch war, erwachte sie von den Toten und ermordete brutalst jeden einzelnen Nomaden, Kinder, Frauen und Männer. Die unterschiedlichen Überlieferungen des Vampirmythos beschreiben verschiedene besondere Merkmale und Eigenschaften, aus denen sich die heutige Vorstellung des Vampirs zusammensetzt. Dabei wurden auf Porphyrie hindeutende Mutationen nachgewiesen.